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Unit 1: Bonding and Structure

作者:无锡市北高中 来源:无锡市北高中 发布时间:2009年10月23日 点击数:

 

Lesson 1: Solids, Liquids and Gases

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Learning objectives

<!--[if !supportLists]-->·         <!--[endif]-->To describe the states of matter and explain their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory.

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 Possible teaching activities

<!--[if !supportLists]-->·        <!--[endif]-->Starter Activity: Explain that scientists like to classify materials to make them easier to study. One way we can classify chemical substances is as a solid, liquid or gas. Have a large ~1Kg mass, some coloured water in a flask, and an air-filled balloon on the front desk. To demonstrate compressibility you should also have three sealed pop bottles filled to the very brim with sand, coloured water and air. Pupils use these examples to complete worksheet ‘Lesson 1: Observation sheet’ (this could be done individually, in pairs or in small groups). They should put a tick or a cross in each space.

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  • Go through pupils’ answers and check that everyone is in agreement about the properties of the three states of matter. (You can pour water into a tall thin measuring cylinder, burst the balloon and squeeze the pop bottles to illustrate some of the properties!)

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  • Show pupils a PowerPoint list of various everyday substances. These contain easy and difficult examples. Pupils use their list of physical properties to classify these as solids, liquids or gases. Various AfL methods could be used to find areas of consensus/disagreement (see JC). Explain that this is not always very easy. Some substances are a mixture of states.

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  • Tell pupils that one of the jobs of a scientist is to explain why materials behave the way they do? Tell the pupils that you are going to have some stew for tea and that the recipe calls for diced carrot. Start to chop a carrot in front of them. Explain that you might get carried away and dice it so small that your knife could not cut it any more. Pose the question, ‘Is there any limit to this process, or could you in principle keep on cutting forever?’ Elicit one or two answers from pupils. Explain that this is not a new problem and that 2000 years ago the ancient Greek philosopher-scientists were asking the same questions. Explain that much evidence has been collected and scientists now believe that all chemical substances are made of small particles.

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->·        <!--[endif]-->Show Sunflower learning presentation on how the arrangement of these particles changes as we move from solid to liquid to gas.

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->·        <!--[endif]-->Pupils complete worksheet “Lesson 1: Summing up States”.

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->·        <!--[endif]-->Plenary: Ask one group of pupils – around 9 to model the particles in a solid. Ask the rest of the class to suggest ideas. They should focus on the arrangement and proximity of the particles. Can they find a way to represent the forces of attraction? Ask them to modify their model as begin to heat the solid, and it changes first to a liquid and then a gas. They must be aware of expansion, movement etc.

Resources

Large mass, some coloured water in a flask, an air filled balloon and three sealed plastic containers of sand, water and air, copies of observation sheet.

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PowerPoint of everyday substances.

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Access to Sunflower learning software.

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Worksheet ‘Lesson 1: Summing up States’

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Homework

Worksheet ‘Using ideas about particles’.

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Reference

Pages 1-3 of Chemistry

Page 1 of Studies Guide

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